Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2015).
Indoor Environmental Quality.
Chan KH, Peiris JSM, Lam SY, Poon LLM, Yuen KY & Seto WH (2011). The Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Viability of the SARS Coronavirus. Adv Virol 2011, 734690.
Cheng VCC, Wong SC, Chen JHK, et al. (2020). Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. Infection control and hospital epidemiology 2020: 1-6.
Chin AWH, Chu JTS, Perera MRA, Hui KPY, Yen HL, Chan MCW, Peiris M, Poon LM.
Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions
. medRix preprint posted March 27, 2020.
DHS S&T Research & Development;
Response to SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19
. (Accessed 5-02-2020)
Dietz L, Horve PF, Coil DA, Fretz M, Eisen JA, Van Den Wymelenberg K. 2020. 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: built environment considerations to reduce transmission. mSystems 5:e00245-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00245-20.
Ding Y, He L, Zhang Q, Huang Z, Che X, Hou J, Wang H, Shen H, Qiu L, Li Z, Geng J, Cai J, Han H, Li X, Kang W, Weng D, Liang P & Jiang S (2004). Organ distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in SARS patients: implications for pathogenesis and virus transmission pathways. J Pathol 203, 622-630.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
What is a MERV rating?
Last updated on August 1, 2019
Fears AC, Klimstra WB, Duprex P, Hartman A, Weaver SC, Plante KC, Mirchandani D, Plante JA, Aguilar PV, Fernandez D, Nalca A, Totura A, Dyer D, Kearney B, Lackemeyer M, Bohannon JK, Johnson R, Garry RF, Reed DS, Roy CJ.
Comparative dynamic aerosol efficiencies of three emergent coronaviruses and the unusual persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol suspensions
. medRxiv 2020
Gandhi M, Yokoe DS, Havlir DV. Asymptomatic Transmission, the Achilles Heel of Current Strategies to Control Covid-19. NEJM. (2020) DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe2009758
Jianyun L, Jieni G, Kuibiao L, Conghui X, Wenzhe S, Zhisheng L, et al. COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with Air Conditioning in Restaurant, Guangzhou, China, (2020). Emerging Infectious Disease journal. 2020;26(7).
Koehler K and Rule AM,
Can a Mask Protect Me? Putting Homemade Masks in the Hierarchy of Controls
Li Y, Huang X, Yu ITS, Wong TW & Qian H (2005). Role of air distribution in SARS transmission during the largest nosocomial outbreak in Hong Kong. Indoor Air 15, 83-95.
HIERARCHY OF CONTROLS
. CDC, US DHHS. Updated 2015
Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, et al. (2020). Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. Jama 2020.
Otter JA, Donskey C, Yezli S, Douthwaite S, Goldenberg SD & Weber DJ (2016). Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination. J Hosp Infect 92, 235-250.
Perry J.L., Agui J.H.,* and Vijayakumar R. Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials. NASA report NASA/TM 2016-218224, 2016.
Qian H, Zheng X.
Ventilation control for airborne transmission of human exhaled bio-aerosols in buildings
. J Thorac Dis. 2018;10(Suppl 19):S2295-S2304. doi:10.21037/jtd.2018.01.24
Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera V, Morwitzer MJ, Creager H, Santarpia JW, Crown KK, Brett-Major D, Schnaubelt E, Broadhurst MJ, Lawler JV, Reid SP, Lowe JJ.
Transmission Potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center
. medRxiv (2020)
Semenza JC, Rubin CH, Falter KH, Selanikio JD, Flanders WD, Howe HL & Wilhelm JL (1996). Heat-Related Deaths during the July 1995 Heat Wave in Chicago. N Engl J Med 335, 84-90.
Schwartz KL, Murti M, Finkelstein M, et al. (2020). Lack of COVID-19 transmission on an international flight. Canadian Medical Association Journal; 192(15): E410.
Sun Z, Thilakavathy K, Kumar SS, He G & Liu SV (2020). Potential Factors Influencing Repeated SARS Outbreaks in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health; DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17051633.
Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, Tamin A, Harcourt JL, Thornburg NJ, Gerber SI, Lloyd-Smith JO, Wit E, Munster VJ. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1564-1567, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973
Consensus document on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
. World Health Organization.
WHO (2016). Natural Ventilation for Infection Control in Health-Care Settings. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK143284/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK143284.pdf
WHO, (2020). Health Advice for hot weather during the COVID-19 outbreak
Zhao Z, Zhang F, Xu M, Huang K, Zhong W, Cai W, Yin Z, Huang S, Deng Z, Wei M, Xiong J & Hawkey PM (2003). Description and clinical treatment of an early outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangzhou, PR China. J Med Microbiol 52, 715-720.